Metal transfers heat quickly and evenly from the heat source to the food; this, and its durability, make it an efficient and popular cookware material.
Metal cookware sales will also get a boost from the popularization of induction cooktops. In induction cooking, heat is transferred through magnetic attraction. So the cookware used must be made of a magnetic material, such as cast iron. To test pans, use a common kitchen magnet.
Aside from copper, aluminum is the best heat conductor used for cookware. It has even heat distribution and no “hot spots” where food will stick and burn.
Aluminum heats rapidly and evenly, and cools almost as quickly when removed from stove burner, so it will not keep foods warm for serving unless extremely thick. It is also relatively lightweight.
Aluminum pans are not all alike; their method of manufacture and gauge (or thickness) make the difference. The two most common manufacturing methods are stamping and casting.
Stamping involves placing flat sheets or round blanks of aluminum, rolled to specified thickness, in a press that forms the utensil. After finish is applied, handles are attached.
In the casting process, molten aluminum alloy is poured into molds. When the metal has cooled, the pan is removed from mold.
Medium and light gauge utensils are stamped, while heavier and more expensive ones are either stamped or cast. Both are one piece with no seams or hard-to-clean corners.
Pans used for top-of-range cooking are at least 18 gauge. The heavier the pan, the more durable it is and the more it costs. A top quality pan could be about 5 to 7 gauge. Thinner metal (22 gauge) offers more chances for food to scorch and it may dent or warp.
|Gauge is the thickness of metal used in cookware. The lower the gauge number, the thicker the metal. For example, 10 gauge is thicker than 16 gauge.|
|A rule of thumb to apply to cookware is that 10 to 18 gauge metal is suitable for range-top use; 20 and 22 gauge is too thin for use over direct heat and may result in burned food or a warped pan. Baking pans may be thinner gauge, but must be sturdy enough to maintain shape under normal usage.|
Aluminum range-top pans have satin-finished bottoms (to speed heat conduction) and sides that are polished, chrome plated, anodized or covered with porcelain or ceramic.
Aluminum bakeware with a dull or anodized finish absorbs heat quickly, while highly polished bakeware reflects heat.
The outside walls of cake pans and cookie sheets usually have shiny finish to bake light golden cakes or to keep cookies from browning too much on the bottom.
Best metal pie pans have satin or anodized finish to absorb oven heat which is conducted quickly and evenly to the pie. Nine inch is most common, but other sizes are available.
Muffin pans, also used for cupcakes, are sold in 6 and 12 cup sizes. Mini-size muffin pans are also available.
Covered roasters are for fowl or less-tender cuts of meat-those that require both heat and moisture to become tender. Shallow, rectangular, open roasting pans are designed for tender meat cuts.
Cooking tools made of wood, plastic or smooth-edged metal are recommended for use with aluminum. Sharp-edged tools such as knives, mashers and beaters may scratch it.
Stainless steel pans are smooth, hard, warp- and scratch-resistant, non-porous and exceptionally durable. Adding chromium and nickel to steel alloys makes the utensil stainless by forming an invisible film that protects the surface from rust, corrosion, pitting, cracking, chipping and tarnishing. The chromium renews the film if anything mars it.
Stainless steel bakeware is usually solid stainless steel, while range-top utensils combine stainless steel with other metals.
The reason for this is that stainless steel does not conduct heat as rapidly or as evenly as aluminum. To improve heat conduction, it is combined with aluminum, copper or carbon steel.
Different manufacturing methods produce “ply pans” in several combinations of metals that are bonded together before the utensil is formed. These include:
Two-ply pans – stainless-steel interior with another metal on the outside. Occasionally this is reversed.
Three-ply pans – stainless steel on the inside and outside with another metal as the core.
Bottom-clad pans – solid stainless or three-ply with another metal applied to the bottom of the pan after it is formed.
Five-ply/bottom-clad utensils – made by three-ply process with two clad layers on the bottom.
Five-ply pans – stainless steel on both the inside and outside surfaces with three layers of aluminum forming the core.
Like aluminum, stainless steel can have a highly polished or satin finish, and for the same reasons. Again, heavier gauge denotes quality.
Cast-iron ware is one of man’s oldest forms of cookware. Today’s cast-iron implements are alloys that permit thinner (and lighter-weight) pans with greater strength.
Most common items of cast iron are chicken fryers, skillets, roasters, Dutch ovens, broilers and grills, as well as specialty items like muffin or corn stick pans.
Cast iron heats more slowly than other metals, but distributes heat evenly and maintains a steady surface temperature desirable for browning, pan broiling, slow stewing or baking. Cast-iron skillets have become more popular with the recent cooking trend toward blackened meats and Cajun recipes.
Cast iron requires different care from other cookware metals (see chart below on cleaning metals and finishes). The addition of nonstick interior coating and porcelainized exterior finishes makes cast iron easier to care for. However, interior coatings rob cast iron of its browning ability, often regarded as its most desirable characteristic.
Copper is the best conductor of heat among cookware metals; it not only distributes heat evenly, but holds heat to keep foods warm. It is, however, heavy and expensive, and it dents and tarnishes easily.
Copper cooking surfaces must be lined with a coating such as stainless steel or a nonstick coating; otherwise they may produce toxic salts when exposed to some foods.
Also, cooked foods left in contact with uncoated copper may become discolored. The discoloration isn’t appealing, but is harmless in most cases.
Copper is used mostly in combination with other metals, such as stainless steel (see section on stainless steel).
Tin, like cast iron, is one of the older metals used in cookware. Although it may be subject to warping and denting, pure tin will not rust and this characteristic makes it an ideal plating for steel utensils. However, tin ware will rust if the tin plate is cut and the steel exposed. It is manufactured into durable, lightweight and inexpensive baking pans.
Much tin ware now has an embossed, silver-like finish which reduces sticking and permits retention of grease in the batter.
Chromium-plated steel utensils are stamped from cold rolled steel, polished and then plated with copper, nickel and chromium. These pans offer a shiny, hard chrome surface that is dent and warp resistant and maintains its non-tarnishing surface with ordinary dishwashing.
They are also available with nonstick interiors.
Aside from natural metal exteriors, the emphasis on colorful kitchens has created a big market for colored cookware and that means special exterior finishes. Porcelain and ceramic coatings are most often used, since they offer solid colors and designs on an easily cleaned surface. Some pans and skillets are painted.
Porcelain is a form of durable glass bonded to metal at a high temperature.
Porcelain enamel cookware should not be used over a high heat for a prolonged time; extreme high temperatures may cause the porcelain to melt.
Better grades of porcelainized cookware are seamless. Price differences can be traced to thickness of metal, number of coats of porcelain, design and color, and accessories such as non-broilover covers and heat-resistant plastic handles.
Ceramic are clay-based and applied to metal in much the same way as porcelain.
Either coating can be applied to steel, aluminum, stainless steel or cast iron after the pan has been formed. Both offer a hard, lustrous finish that normally will not scratch, rust, fade or peel. However, it may chip or crack if the pan is dropped.
Other finishes for metal cookware include:
Anodized – layer of aluminum oxide electrochemically applied to sheet aluminum; is stain resistant. Color finish can be applied by soaking in color bath.
Brite – polished and buffed finish.
Enamel – (acrylic, alkyd, epoxy, polyurethane)-organic material baked onto interior or exterior of aluminum or stainless steel. In variety of colors.
Plated – layer of chrome, copper or brass plated onto aluminum or stainless steel.
Satin – dull finish; speeds heat absorption. Applied by brushing.
Silkscreen – porcelain or acrylic paste forced through design on screen and baked on exterior surface.
Sunray – interior finish. Applied by rotating pan over light abrasive, like sandpaper.
Synthetic finishes may fade from prolonged subjection to high heat or after repeated washing with dishwasher detergent. An anodized finish can be permanently damaged by soaking in strong detergent or washing in a dishwasher.
Enamelware is slightly different from porcelainized cookware in that it is coated complete-inside and out-with porcelain enamel.
The coating can be applied to steel, stainless steel and cast iron. The porcelain is applied after utensil is formed to create a smooth non-porous surface. In normal use, these pans are not affected by aging, heat, humidity or food acids, and therefore can be used for cooking, baking, roasting, serving and storing.
Less-expensive enamelware may chip or scratch easily, but better quality utensils have heavier coatings and are more chip-resistant.
|Capacity of saucepans/saucepots||Fullest liquid measure at overflow or liquid capacity expressed in quarts||Liquid measure at overflow full; for casseroles, expressed in quarts|
|Capacity of frying utensils||Top outside dimensions- bottom outside dimension may also be stated||Not applicable|
|Markings||Marked permanently on utensil or on removable label||Marked permanently on utensil or on removable label|
|Order of dimensions||Not applicable||Round utensils-diameter by depth; rectangular utensils -length by width by depth|
|Tolerance of normal margin of error||1/4″ total dimension size; 5% total liquid volume||1/4″ total dimension size; 5% total liquid volume|
|Source: Cookware Manufacturers Associations|
|Oven ware includes baking pans, roasters and other pans used in the oven. Food is baked or roasted by absorbing heat from the surrounding air. Combines with conduction where food touches its container. Basic to this category are:|
|Cake pans-round, square or oblong with slightly tapered sides. May have loose bottom for layer cakes or movable cutter bar to help remove cake. Angel food or bundt pans are circular, have high, tapered sides and tubular stem. Loose-bottom pans may have groove to catch overflow of batter.|
|Pie pans-round pans with flared sides. May have rim to catch excess juice.|
|Cookie sheets-flat, rectangular pan with one, two or three open sides.|
|Bread or loaf pans-narrow, deep rectangular pans with flared sides.|
|Muffin pans-also used for cupcakes. Oblong or rectangular tray-like pan with 6 or 12 individual cups.|
|Roasting pans-open or covered, round, rectangular or oval, some with lifting rack. Sizes range from 12″ to 18″. Generally, 12 to 16-lb. fowl, 18-lb. roast or 16 to 20-lb. ham requires 16″ roaster; 16 to 22-lb. fowl, 25-lb. ham requires 18″ roaster. “Roasting pan” is open; “roaster” is covered pan.|
|Broiling pans-large flat pans. Perforated top lets fat from meat drip into tray below.|
|The American National Standards Institute has established size measurements for layer cake, loaf cake, tubed cake pans, pie pans, muffin pans and roasting pans. Most manufacturers show sized or dimensions on the label or stamp or imprint them on the outside bottom of the pan.|
|There should be at least one inch of space between sides of bakeware and the sides of oven: ovenware should be sold according to inside measurements of the customer’s oven.|
|Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and caring for metals and finishes. Generally it’s best to wait for pans to cool before washing or rinsing them, as they may warp if submerged in cold water while still hot.|
|Aluminum-should be washed in warm soapy water. Hand rather than machine washing is recommended. The extremely hot water in automatic dishwashers, combined with minerals in water and detergents, may discolor aluminum, especially colored anodized finishes. Remove stains with a non-abrasive cleaner.||Copper-to remove discoloration use commercial cleaner or a mixture of flour, salt, lemon juice and ammonia applied before regular washing.|
|Stainless steel-should be washed in hot, soapy water or a warm ammonia and water solution, thoroughly rinsed and immediately dried to avoid water spots. Use mild, stainless steel cleaners or light scouring with a plastic or stainless steel scouring pad to remove most stains; don’t use steel wool, chlorine bleach or alcohol.||Chrome-wash with warm water and soap or detergent. Do not use abrasive cleaners.|
|Cast-iron-is usually pre-seasoned (coated with unsalted fat and heated to prevent rusting), unless porcelain coated. It should be washed in warm sudsy water and frequently treated by coating the cast iron interior surface with unsalted shortening, left until its next use, then wiped out. To re-season, scour the pan completely, rinse and dry; then coat the inside with unsalted fat and leave in moderate oven for two hours. Remove and wipe off excess grease.||Plastic laminates-wash with detergent and water or a mild cleaner. Although strong and heat-resistant countertop coverings, they should not be used as cutting boards, trivets or hot pads, as they can be cut and burned.|
|Acrylic enamel-use soap or detergent in warm water for cleaning. This exterior finish can be marked or damaged by ammonia, alcohol or bleach.||Baked enamel-somewhat chip-resistant, it is used on cabinets and appliances. Use soap or detergent in warm water or household cleaner. Do not use abrasives, alcohol or chlorine bleach.|
|Porcelain enamel-commonly used on bathtubs, sinks, appliances and cookware. Use soap or detergent in warm water-mild cleaner if necessary. A sharp blow with a hard object may chip porcelain enamel.|
Heat-resistant glass and glass ceramic cooking utensils also fill the need for an attractive dish that can be used for mixing, cooking, serving and storing.
Features include attractiveness, one-dish convenience, a non-porous surface that does not stain, absorb food flavors or hold food odors. There is little danger of warping, bending, denting, discoloring or pitting, but they may break. Ordinary dishwashing will clean these utensils.
Although glass-ceramic pans can be used for rangetop cooking, they are better suited for baking, broiling or roasting. They are slow heat conductors, but because they hold heat longer than metal, overall cooking time is about the same.
Glass-ceramic cookware designed especially for rangetop cooking has integral handles of the same material so they stay comfortable to the touch on top of the range and will not melt or warp when used in ovens. Transparent, tinted glass-ceramic rangetop cookware can be used on gas or electric ranges as well as in conventional or microwave ovens and under broilers for browning.
Glass-ceramic cookware can be used for storage, too; it is not affected by temperature changes and can go from refrigerator to oven safely.
Heat-resistant glass is like glass ceramic in that it can be used for storing, cooking and serving. Some pieces can be used on the range, while others are suitable only for the oven. Manufacturer’s labels usually include recommended usage.
Those designed for baking can be taken from refrigerator and put into a preheated oven. However, heat-resistant glass rangetop products cannot be taken directly from refrigerator to range top-the temperature change and direct contact with heat may cause them to break.
Sudden cooling may be detrimental to heat-resistant glass items-they should not be put in water while still hot. When glass or glass-ceramic dishes are used for baking, oven temperature should be reduced by at least 25 degrees.
|Range-top ware includes items used on top of the stove that come in direct contact with heat. Food is cooked by conduction-transfer of heat through pan to food. Basic to this category are:|
|Saucepans-have one long handle, come with or without lids in 5/8-qt. to 4-qt. sizes.|
|Sauce pots-have two side handles, 2-qt. to 20-qt. sizes.|
|Skillets-also called fry pans. Have one long handle, broad bottoms, shallow sidewalls. Come 6″ to 12″ diameters, round or square, regular or sautÈ (with curved flaring sides) shapes, with or without lids.|
|Dutch ovens-like sauce pots only made of heavier gauge metal: May be used on burner or in oven for slow cooking or braising meats.|
|Kettles-8-qt. to 16-qt. covered utensils with bail handle.|
|Griddles-have one long handle, two side handles or bail handle, wide bottoms, shallow sidewalls: are round, square or oblong.|
|Tea kettles-have curved or bail handles, 6-cup to 5 qt. capacity. Conventional or whistling. “Whistlers” have flip-up spout covers and trigger handles.|
As a result of the increase in microwave oven sales, microwave cookware has emerged in a variety of materials-glass, glass ceramic, plastic and paper. Some cookware specifically for microwave ovens can also be refrigerated, frozen and used in conventional ovens.
You may not want to or cannot invest in a whole new set of cookware and will want to know which articles you already have that can be used in the ovens.
A simple test to determine if a dish is microwave-safe is to place the dish in question in the microwave along with a cup of cold water in a known microwave-safe item. Microwave on high (100 percent) power for one minute. If the water has heated and the dish has remained cool, it’s microwave safe. If the dish tested has gotten warm or hot, it should not be used in the microwave oven.
A container used in microwave cooking must allow microwaves to pass through both it and the food. Contrary to popular belief, some metal can be used in microwave cooking; its reflective properties can even help protect food which might overheat in some areas.
Aluminum foil for shielding, small skewers and shallow food convenience trays can be used in microwave ovens; however, metal should be kept at least 1″ away from oven walls, and deep trays and metal pans aren’t suitable. Foil-lined cartons shield food completely, and don’t heat food at all.
Generally speaking, shallow containers produce better results than deep ones; round shapes tend to be better than square or rectangular ones. Microwaves travel in straight lines, bouncing around the oven in irregular patterns. Therefore, sharp corners allow more exposure to microwave energy so the food in these areas dries out before the center is cooked.
Plastics for the most part are transparent to microwave energy and are ideal for microwave use. A variety of plastics is available, and the quality of the plastic in microwave ovenware has much to do with its safety. “Engineered” plastic (heavy-duty industrial grade) is not only more expensive than many plastics, it’s likely to damage a microwave oven.
The Society of Plastics Industry is developing test methods for manufacturers of plastic cookware to use as guidelines in evaluating the durability and safety of their products. Newly developed, heavy-duty plastic microwave cookware that is not harmful to microwaves comes in a variety of shapes and sizes-from casserole dishes to muffin pans. Some of this cookware also can be used in conventional ovens at low temperatures.
In general, plastics are stain resistant, break resistant and freezable, but the combined production of steam and hot fans in microwave ovens can distort some of the less-durable plastics.
Those labeled to withstand boiling water, or as dishwasher safe, are often recommended for microwave use because they can take the heat of food for short reheating and thawing periods without melting or distorting. For true cooking, exotic resins like PBT, TPX, etc., have 350 degrees to 450 degrees melting points.
Melamine dishes are usually limited to one or two minutes of cooking time by most oven manufacturers, if they’re recommended at all, because they can become very hot and scorch or crack.
Wood and natural materials such as straw are usually limited to one or two minutes of cooking time by most manufacturers of microwave ovens. The inherent or soaked-up moisture and fats in wood can absorb the microwaves and cause the wood to heat, resulting in drying, cracking or scorching.
Ceramics, including pottery and earthen-ware, are suitable for use in microwave ovens, but oven manufacturers recommend that they be tested first. Some ingredients that absorb microwave energy and heat rapidly to a high temperature are present in some ceramic dishes. Large amounts of these particles can result in the dish overheating and breaking.
Glass cookware is identified as heat resistant or non-heat resistant, while most glass-ceramic cookware is classified as glazed or unglazed. Most manufacturers recommend the use of heat-resistant glass or glass-ceramic cookware for microwave cooking.
Non-heat-resistant glass dishes are not treated to withstand the extreme and uneven heat normal in microwave cooking; i.e., the glass remains cool while food gets hot; the hot food then transfers heat at the points where it touches the glass, causing uneven heating in the glass that leads to breakage for non-heat-resistant glasses.
Glazed glass-ceramic dishes are not recommended for microwave oven use. The glazes contain relatively high percentages of ingredients which absorb microwave energy, causing the dishes to heat rapidly to high temperatures. This may result in breakage or could cause burns or spills if they are picked up without potholders or oven mitts by someone not expecting the dish or cup itself to be hot.
Heat-resistant and unglazed glass-ceramic ovenware is highly recommended for use by both ovenware and microwave-oven manufacturers because they are non-porous and cannot absorb moisture of food.
|Paper***||Y (short time)||N||N||N||Y||N|
|Straw/Wood||Y (short time)||N||N||N||N||N|
|Metal on Glassware||N*||*||*||*||*||*|
|Unglazed Glass Dinnerware||Y||Y||N||N||Y||Y|
|Crystal/Cut Glass||N||N||N||N||Not recommended||*|
|Microwave Browning Dish||Y||N||N||N||N||Y|
|*See manufacturer’s directions|
|**Some microwave dishes use metal parts for shielding and are safe for microwave use.|
|***Does not include paper products manufactured for microwave ovens.|
Waterless cookware describes a heavy-gauge pan with tight-fitting cover that requires only a small quantity of liquid-either added by the cook or present in the food itself. Low heat is of utmost importance for food cooked by steam rather than by water.
Three benefits to using waterless cookware:
- Metal pans are formed with graduated thickness that, at a low temperature, spreads heat throughout the pan, al though only a small area may come in direct contact with the food. Heat reaches food from all directions.
- Rims and covers are made so that a ring of moisture forms in the crevice between cover flange and inside rim. This seals pan lid to the body and seals steam, moisture, flavors and odors inside pan. Covers are heavy enough that they won’t be pushed up by steam collecting inside.
- The pans are self-basting. Steam forms in the pan, rises to the lid and falls back again and again into the food to keep it moist and juicy. No basting or stirring is necessary if the lid is not lifted. This only lets moisture escape and prolongs cooking time.
The porous nature of terra cotta cookware allows for unique cooking methods. The cookware can be submersed in cold water prior to use; the clay absorbs the moisture which is then slowly released during cooking. If used dry, the food produces a thin, crisp crust because of moisture lost to the clay.
The cookware can be used in conventional, microwave and convection ovens. They are available in a variety of shapes from lasagna pans to muffin pans. Accessory items, such as wine coolers, are also available.
PRESSURE COOKERS AND FRYERS
Slightly different from other rangetop ware are pressure cookers and pressure fryers. Both specialize in fast cooking and retention of natural flavors, vitamins and colors of fruits and vegetables.
Pressure cookers have steam-tight covers that permit steam pressure of 5 to 15 lbs. Average size is 4 qt. capacity, but larger sizes (up to 22 qt.) are available. Foods cook under steam pressure three to 10 times faster than in ordinary pans. Flavors do not evaporate into the air or drown in water because cooking is done with no air and a small amount of water.
Pressure cookers are also economical. First are fuel savings because a whole meal-meat and vegetables-can be cooked in one pan on one burner. Second are grocery costs. Pressure cooking will tenderize less tender-and cheaper-cuts of meat.
If you have large gardens, cookers with a selective 5, 10, 15 lb. control double as pressure canners and provide (according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture) the only safe way to can low-acid foods.
Because of construction features, steam venting and pressure-control devices on pressure cookers differ according to the manufacturer.
Low-pressure fryers fry foods in oil under pressure in about one-third of the time of conventional frying. Designed especially for pressure frying, these cookers maintain a pressure level around 5 to 6 lbs. per square inch. For proper browning and pressure frying, the oil should reach a temperature of 350 degrees F. Available in 4 and 6 qt. capacities, a pressure fryer features a pressure regulator, vent tube, safety vent and clamp to hold the lid on. Check manufacturer information for complete construction features as well as proper use and care instructions. Although pressure frying cannot be done in a conventional pressure cooker, regular pressure cooking can be done in pressure fryers.
Easy cleanup . . . cooking with less oil . . . moderate prices-all reasons why products with nonstick finishes are attractive to consumers.
Because DuPont’s Teflon and SilverStone finishes are most widely known, information here deals with them. Other nonstick finishes include Fluon, made by ICI America, Inc.; Halon, made by Allied Corp.; Debron, and TFal.
TEFLON TFE FINISHES
Teflon TFE nonstick finishes referred to in the plural because the application process involves two coats: a primer with adhesive properties and a top coat of enamel containing color.
Teflon II coatings are scratch resistant and can be used with smooth-edged metal kitchen tools; they are available on all kinds of utensil-rangetop cookware, some small appliances and bakeware-and can be applied to aluminum, stainless-steel, cast iron and glass cookware, both electric and nonelectric.
Only those items bearing the Teflon II Certification Mark meet DuPont’s standards of hard-based application and can be considered scratch resistant.
TeflonS, another non-stick finish manufactured by DuPont, is used on products such as steam irons, garden tools, range hoods and drill bits; it is not used on cooking utensils.
Certain other finishes, such as Tufram, have a hard material added to the Teflon; but according to DuPont, the surface, although harder, loses some of its nonstick properties.
WHAT WILL TEFLON DO?
When Teflon is applied to cookware, it produces a nonstick surface that reduces cleaning time and effort because food will not stick and burned-on residue comes off with ordinary dishwashing.
This same nonstick property makes it possible to cook without grease or cooking oils.
But Teflon is not a miracle covering. It won’t keep food from burning if the pan gets too hot. It won’t replace the flavor that cooking oil gives food, but neither will it substitute a foreign flavor or endanger health.
HOW TO USE TEFLON
While it isn’t necessary to use cooking oils, in some instances it is recommended. As a general rule, follow the recipe-especially for baked foods. The nonstick finish assures that the finished product will come out of the pan cleanly and completely.
A new Teflon-coated pan should be washed, rinsed, dried and conditioned before it is used. Conditioning means covering the surface lightly with cooking oil, and this is particularly important for frying pans, grills and bakeware, except angel food pans. (If an angel food pan has been greased for any reason, the Teflon coating should be cleaned by rubbing vinegar or lemon juice over the entire surface, then washed thoroughly in hot suds, rinsed and dried.)
No matter what the base material, Teflon-coated frying pans and grills should be preheated. Medium to medium-high heat is best for aluminum and low to medium heat is best for porcelain-enameled pans. High heat, above 450 degrees , should be avoided because (1) food may burn and (2) the Teflon coating may discolor. Discoloring will not destroy the nonstick quality, but the pan’s appearance will suffer.
Although food will not stick to Teflon finishes, grease may build up and cause stains and discoloring. Minor stains are normal and do not harm surface, but large stains, caused by improper cleaning or overheating, may result in the loss of nonstick property.
These stains and coloration can be partially removed or reduced by simmering any of the following solutions 15-20 minutes in the stained pan:
- 3 Tbsp. oxygen bleach and one tsp. liquid dish detergent in one cup water.
- 3 Tbsp. automatic dishwasher detergent in one cup water. Wash, rinse, dry and again condition with shortening or cooking oil.
Proper cleaning involves washing the pan with a soft cloth or sponge in hot water and detergent after each use and periodically scrubbing the surface with a plastic or rubber scrubber. A plastic-mesh dish pad or rubber scraper will remove a stubborn spot, but steel wool or scouring powder should never be used. Nylon, plastic, wooden or rubber utensils are preferred. Metal utensils can be used with care, but do not cut in the pan.
Automatic dishwashing will not harm Teflon surface, but may discolor the undercoated outside of the pan. When rinse water beads and runs off, Teflon surface is clean.
Manufactured by DuPont, SilverStone a nonstick finish developed for heavy-gauge aluminum cookware.
Applied in a three-coat system and baked on at 800 degrees F, SilverStone has a smoother cooking surface than Teflon and is more resistant to scratching, peeling and chipping. Cookware with SilverStone can be used in ovens with temperatures up to 350 degrees F. The temperature limit is to protect the handles. It should not be used under a broiler.
Its care and use is the same as for Teflon II.
SilverStone Supra has most of the same properties as regular SilverStone coatings, but is more abuse resistant than earlier SilverStone. The Supra line costs about 20 percent more at retail than the regular SilverStone-coated items.
Check your state and local codes before starting any project. Follow all safety precautions. Information in this document has been furnished by the North American Retail Hardware Association (NRHA) and associated contributors. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and safety. Neither NRHA, any contributor nor the retailer can be held responsible for damages or injuries resulting from the use of the information in this document.