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Grass, vegetable and flower seeds are sold either in bulk or packages, with packages far more widespread.

Seed packages are extremely functional because they carry complete planting instructions, showing planting and harvesting times for geographic areas.


Grass seed is sold in boxes and bags as well as in bulk. Coverage rate is more important than weight of the package, because this reflects the quality and vigor of the grass strain.


In cool-season northern states, a blend of permanent grasses is best, as long as about 90 percent of the mixture is desirable permanent lawn grasses.

Unblended grasses, such as pure Bermuda grass, do well in warm- season southern states. It is also important to know that many newer types of warm-season grasses cannot be started from seed. They must be set out as plantings. Good cool-season grasses include bluegrass, red and tall fescue and bentgrass. Warm-season grasses include common Bermuda grass, zoysia, centipede and carpetgrass.

In mixtures, remember that formulations vary greatly. Prepackaged seed must indicate on the package the percentage of each grass type in the mixture.

Each pound of better grass seed contains a higher percentage of permanent grasses, more desirable for a long-lasting lawn. Inexpensive mixes frequently contain low-quality annual grasses and too many contaminants, such as weed seed, to maintain a good lawn.


The following describes the most common preferred grass seeds and some of their characteristics:

Rye-grass – fast-growing seed, frequently used by itself or in mixtures. Rye-grass is available as an annual or perennial. The annual is quick to germinate for temporary lawns. Small quantities may be included in seed mixtures. Good to cover slopes because of quick germination.

Kentucky Bluegrass – forms a good sod when grown alone and thrives when included in a mixture. Slow to germinate and become established. Won’t tolerate dense shade. Responds to adequate fertilization and high mowing (more than an inch and a half).

Other Bluegrasses – Newport, Delta, Park, Arboretum and Rugby.

Merion – seeds are very small which means greater coverage per pound. Resistant to leaf spot. Can be mowed closer and fertilized more. Retains green look longer. Best to plant in early fall or very early spring because seedlings grow slowly. Subject to rust and powdery mildew in fall if soil lacks nitrogen.

Victa – dark, deep bluegreen bluegrass with a medium-fine texture and low growth habit. Good leaf spot resistance and above-average shade tolerance.

Adelphi – hybrid from Rutgers University. Dark green, low growth with medium texture. Durable.

Baron – dark bluish-green, low- growing, disease resistant and relatively problem free.

Arista – bright green, medium- textured grass from Europe. Not as disease resistant as other varieties, but adds strength to blends.

Fylking – Swedish development widely used in blends. Low growing, disease resistant.

Red Fescue – Well adapted to drought soils in shady or sunny area. Generally included in bluegrass mixtures. Creeping fescue is another common strain. Some strains are subject to leaf spot and become open and pitted in the summer. Fall planting preferred.

Tall Fescue – Rather coarse, but good for areas that need a tough stand of grass.

Bentgrass – used mainly on golf putting greens. Dense patches of creeping bentgrass generally are unwanted. Where bent is desired, it must be given good care, cut very close, fertilized regularly, watered repeatedly and thinned several times a year.

Clover – sometimes appears in seed mixtures. Considered undesirable by many, but tolerated by others.

Bermuda grass – spreads by fast-growing surface runners during warm periods, but goes brown and dormant from first frost till late spring. Not recommended in northern areas.

Zoysia – planted by plugs. Adapted to sunny areas in warmer parts of the Midwest. Surface runners make a dense mat, which reduces weeds and crabgrass. It turns brown slowly in mid-fall; remains dormant until mid-spring.

Centipede – good in moderate shade and infertile soil; has few insect or disease problems.

Carpetgrass – recommended for infertile and sandy soils. Does not like shade and must be mowed frequently.

Bahia Grass – grows well in partial sun or shade in warm climates. Requires little maintenance. Keep trimmed to 1/2 inch.

St. Augustine – recommended for Florida and Gulf Coast areas. A course, tough grass that requires a power mower, but little other maintenance.

Ground Covers – steep slopes, banks or heavily shaded areas sometimes require ground covers. Among the most popular are myrtle, purple-leaf wintercreeper and Baltic English ivy.

Names of Insecticides
Below is a list of the common names of insecticides used in the tables, followed by the commercial trade name and the chemical name. Some products may be available under a variety of trade names not listed below. Be sure to read the label on the container always lists these products by the common name or chemical name.
Common Name Trade Name Chemical Name
acephate Orthene 0, S-dimethyl acetyl phosphoramidothioate
Bacillus thuringiensis DiPel, Thuricide, SOK-BT, Caterpillar
Bacillus thuringiensis ‘israelensis’ Attack, Mosquito Attack
Bacillus thuringiensis ‘san diego’ M-One
carbaryl Sevin I-naphthyl methylcarbamate
chlorpyrifos Dursban 0, O-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)
DEET Off, Cutter’s phosphorothioate
diazinon Spectracide N. N-diethyl-m-toluamide
dicofol Kelthane 0, O-diethyl 0-(2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl)
dimethoate Cygon phosphorothioate
hydrazone Combat I, I -Bis(chlorophenyl)-2 ,2,2-trichloroethanol O. O-dimethyl S-(N-methyl carbamoyl methyl) phosphorodithioate Tetrahydro-5,5-dimethyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]- I -(2-[4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-ethenyl)-2-propenylidene)hydrazone
hydroprene Gencor Ethyl-3 ,7, I I -trimethyl dodeca-2 ,4 dienoate
malathion Cythion diethyl mercaptosuccinate, S-ester with 0, O-dimethyl phosphorothioate Isopropyl- 1 1 -methoxy-3 , 7 , 11 trimethyl-2 ,4 dodecadienoate
methoprene Precor, Pharorid 1,2-Dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl dimethyl phosphate
naled Dibrom 2-(1-methylethoxy) phenyl methylcarbamateallyl
propoxur Baygon homolog of cinerin I
pyrethroids, d-trans allethrin 3-phenoxybenzyl d-cis and trans 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)
d-Phenothrin Sumithrin cyclopropanecarboxylate principally from plant species Chrysanthemum cinariaelolium
pyrethrin Pyrenone (5-benzyl-3-furyl) methyl 2,2 dimethyl-3-(2-methylprophenyl)
resmethrin Chryson, SBP-1382 cyclopropanecarboxylate ( I -cyclohexene- I ,2-dicarboximido)-methyl 2 ,2-dimethyl-3
tetramethrin Neo-Pynamin (2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylate
tetrachlorvinphos Phthalthrin Rabon 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5,-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate
1 level tablespoon = 3 level teaspoons 1 pint = 2 cups 1 fluid ounce = 2 tablespoons
1 quart = 2 pints or 32 fluid ounces 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces or 16 tablespoons 1 gallon = 4 quarts or 128 fluid ounces
Insect Insecticide* Dosage Suggestions
Ants, soil-nesting wasps, and sowbugs (NHE-79, 93, 111), White grubs diazinon 25% E.C. 1 cup per 1,000 sq. ft. Drench into soil.
Aphids, mealybugs spittlebugs, lacebugs, scales (NHE-7, 114) malathion 50-57% E.C., acephate 15.6% E.C., insecticidal soap 2 tsp. per gal. water, 4 tsp. per gal. water, follow label directions Spray foliage thoroughly. Repeat treatments may be needed.
Blister beetles (NHE-72) carbaryl 50% W.P. 2 tbl. per gal. water Spray foliage. Repeat treatments may be needed.
Cutworms (NHE-77) diazinon 25% E.C., diazinon 5% granules 6 oz. per 2-3 gal. water, 21/2 lb. per 1,000 sq. ft. Spray 1,000 sq. ft. soil at base of plants. Do not spray on plant foliage. Small numbers of plants can be protected with collars of paper, aluminum foil, or metal.
Earwigs (NHE-142) carbaryl 50% W.P. 2 tbl. per gal. water. Spray foliage as needed. Do not spray blooms.
Grasshoppers (NHE-74) carbaryl 50% W.P., malathion 50-57% E.C. 2 tbl. per gal. water, 2 tsp. per gal. water Spray foliage and also adjacent grassy or weedy areas.
Iris borer dimethoate (Cygon 2E) 4 tsp. per gal. water Apply when irises are in bloom, but not on blooms and make only one application. Add a small amount of liquid detergent to spray mix to improve coverage on leaves.
Leaf-feeding beetles, Leaf-feeding caterpillars, Plant bugs and leafhoppers carbaryl 50% W.P., acephate 15.6% E.C. 2 tbl. per gal. water, 4 tbl. per gal. water Spray foliage. Repeat treatments if needed.
Slugs (NHE-84) metaldehyde bait, Mesurol 2% bait Apply as a bait to soil. Remove old leaves, stalks, poles, boards, and other debris where slugs like to hide and lay eggs. Shallow dishes of stale beer sunk into the ground will attract and kill many slugs.
Springtails (NHE-70) malathion 50-57% E.C., malathion 4% dust 2 tsp.per gal. water Spray foliage and soil. Apply to base of plants.
Stalk borers (NHE-24) Same as for leaf-feeding beetles Spray foliage thoroughly and frequently.
Thrips Same as for leaf-feeding beetles Spray foliage carefully.
White flies (NHE-136) pyrethrin 0.1 %, resmethrin, insecticidal soap aerosol spray – follow label directions Spray foliage thoroughly. Repeat in 5 days.
E.C. = emulsion concentrate; W.P. = wettable powder.
*Use only one insecticide from those listed. Do not use oil-base sprays on plants. Do not use malathion on African violets. Do not use carbaryl on Boston ivy. Do not use diazinon on ferns. Repeated use of carbaryl foliage sprays may cause mite or aphid infestations to increase and to become damaging. Do not use insecticides during full bloom. Do not use dimethoate on chrysanthemums.

This table, prepared by the University of Illinois, is for use with recommended dosages of insecticides for household insects included in the charts on the preceding pages. This table is not to be used for vegetable, flower, tree, shrub or lawn insect treatments. Tables accompanying other charts show volume of spray necessary for these treatments.

Pesticide Dilution Table for Household Insecticides
Pesticide formulation Amt. of insecticide needed per gal. of spray
Desired concentration
0.03% 0.25% 0.5% 1.0% 2.5%
carbaryl (Sevin) 50% W.P. 2 tbsp 4 tbsp. 8 tbsp
chlordane 45% E.C. 8 tsp 5 tsp
chlordane 72% E.C. 4 tsp 8 tsp
chlorpyrifos 5 tbsp
diazinon (Spectracide) 25% E.C. 5 tbsp 10 tbsp
dicofol (Kelthane) 18.5% E.C. 1-1/2 tsp
malathion 50-57% E.C. 7 tsp 4-1/2 tbsp 10 tbsp
tetrachlorvinphos 50.5% W.P. 4 tbsp
(tbsp. = tablespoon; tsp = teaspoon)

Vegetable Insects
Aphids (NHE-47), Mites (N. HE-58), Thrips Most garden crops malathion, insecticidal soap Apply on foliage to control the insects. Aphids and leafhoppers transmit plant disease; early control is important. mites web on the underside of leaves, apply insecticide to underside of leaves early before extensive webbing occurs.
Blister beetles (NHE-72), Cutworms (NHE-77), Flea beetles (NHE-36), Grasshoppers (NHE-74), Leafhoppers (NHE-22), Pinic beetles (NHE-40) Most garden crops carbaryl, rotenone For cutworms, attach collars of paper, aluminum foil or metal at planting for small numbers of plants, or apply insecticide to base of plants at first sign of cutting. Control grasshoppers in garden borders when hoppers are small. For picnic beetles, pick and destroy overripe or damaged vegetables.
All cabbage worms (NHE-45) Cabbage and related crops, salad crops, and leafy vegetables Bacillus Thuringiensis Presence of white butterflies signals start of infestation. Control worms when small. It is almost impossible to raise cole crops in Illinois without controlling these pests.
Hornworms (NHE-130), Fruitworms Tomatoes carbaryl, Bacillus thuringiensis Handpicking usually provides satisfactory control of hornworms.
Earworms (NHE-33) Tomatoes and sweet corn carbaryl Apply to late-maturing tomatoes 3 to 4 times at 5- t 10-day intervals from small-fruit stage. Apply at fresh-silk stage to early and late corn every 2 days 4 to 5 times.
Colorado potato beetles Eggplant, potatoes, tomatoes carbaryl, rotenone, Bacillus thuringiensis `san diego’ Apply as needed. Insects usually present only in late May and June. Handpick larvae and adults off of plants.
Potato leafhoppers (NHE-22) Potatoes, beans carbaryl, malathion Apply 3 to 4 times at weekly intervals starting in late May or early June. Late potatoes and beans require additional treatments. Most serious pest of potatoes and beans in Illinois.
Bean leaf beetles (NHE-67) Beans carbaryl, rotenone Leaves are riddles in early plantings. Apply once or twice as needed.
Mexican bean beetles Beans carbaryl, rotenone Except for southern Illinois, only a pest of late beans. Apply insecticide to underside of leaves.
Cucumber beetles (NHE-46) Vine crops carbaryl, rotenone Apply as soon as beetles appear in spring. When blossoming begins, apply insecticide late in the day so as not to interfere with pollination by bees. Cover plants with polyester row covers until blooming starts to protect plants without insecticides in the spring.
Squash vine borers (NHE-8) Squash carbaryl Make weekly applications to crowns and runners when plants begin to vine. Apply late in day. Cover plants with polyester row covers until blooming starts to protect plants without insecticides in the spring.
Corn borers Sweet corn carbaryl Apply 4 times every 3 days to whorl and ear zone of early corn when feeding appears on whorl leaves.
Soil insects (including grubs, wireworms, root maggots) All crops diazinon Mix 6 fluid oz. of 25% diazinon emulsion in enough water to cover 1,000 sq. ft., usually 2 to 3 gallons. Rake into soil. Cover the soil with screening along rows of root maggot-susceptible plants in the spring.
Days Between Application and Harvest
carbaryl malathion rotenone
Collards, kale and other leafy crops 14 7 1
Beans 0 1 1
Lettuce 14 14 1
Cabbage and related crops 3 7 1
Sweet Corn 0 5 1
Onion 3
Vine Crop** 0 1 1
Tomatoes 0 1 1
Pumpkin 0 3
Eggplant 0 3 1
Peas 0 3 1
Potatoes 0 0 1
Amount of Insecticide for Volume of Spray for Vegetable Insects
1 gal. 6 gals. 100 gals. Commercial Dust
carbaryl 50% W.P. 2 tbl. 3/4 cup 2 lbs. 5%
malathion 50-57% E.C. 2 tsp. 4 tbl. 1 qt. 4%
rotenone 1% W.P. 6-8 tbl. 2-1/4-3 cups 6-8 lbs. 1%
E.C. = emulsion concentrate; W.P. = wettable powder. An emulsion concentrate is a chemical pesticide dissolved in a solvent to which an emulsifier has been added. It can then be mixed with water to the desired strength be fore used.
* No time limitations. Sold as DiPel, Thuricide, SOK-BT, and others.
** Apply insecticides late in the day after blossoms have closed to avoid bee kill.

Tree and Shrub Insects
Aphids (NHE-7) acephate, diazinon, malathion, insecticidal soap Spray foliage thoroughly with force when aphids become numerous. Repeat as needed. Check for presence of lady beetles and other predators before spraying.
Bagworms (NHE-6) acephate, carbaryl, malathion, Bacillus thuringiensis*** Spray foliage thoroughly Apply June 15. Later sprays are less effective. For late spraying, use Bacillus thuringiensis. Handpicking of bags in winter and early spring will reduce later infestations.
Borers: Bronze birch (NHE- 143) dimethoate Spray trunk and limbs thoroughly in late May and early June. Repeat in 3 weeks or apply 6-inch band of concentrate to trunk. Keep trees watered if dry during the summer. Keep trees healthy and vigorous.
Borers: Flatheaded apple tree, Oak chlorpyrifos Spray trunk and/or limbs in mid-May and repeat 4 weeks later. Keep the trees healthy and vigorous and avoid trunk wounds.
Borers: Ash (NHE-145), Lilac (NHE-145), Peach tree chlorpyrifos Spray trunk and limbs in mid-June and repeat 4 weeks later. Keep the tree healthy and vigorous and avoid wounds or injury to the trunk. Prune out large lilac trunks.
Cankerworms (NHE-95) acephate, carbaryl, malathion, Bacillus thuringiensis*** Spray foliage when feeding or worms are first noticed in spring.
Eastern tent caterpillars Same as for cankerworms Spray when nests are first noticed. Remove nests and destroy.
Elm leaf beetles (NHE-82) acephate, Bacillus thuringiensis ‘san diego’, carbaryl Spray as soon as damage is noticed.
European pine shoot moths and Nantucket pine moths (NHE-83) dimethoate Spray ends of branches thoroughly in late June for European species and m mid-May for Nantucket species.
Fall webworms acephate, carbaryl, malathion, Bacillus thuringiensis*** Spray when first webs appear; clip off and destroy infested branches or burn out webs.
Galls (NHE-80, 81): Elm cockscomb, Hickory, Maple bladder diazinon, malathion Spray foliage thoroughly when buds are unfolding. Sprays after galls form on leaves are ineffective. Galls rarely harm the tree.
Galls: Hackberry blister acephate, diazinon, malathion Spray foliage thoroughly in late May. Kills psyllids in galls. Sprays after galls form on leaves are ineffective. Galls are not harmful to the tree.
Galls: Cooley spruce, Eastern spruce diazinon, malathion Apply in late September or October or early spring just after bud break.
Green-striped mapleworms Same as for cankerworms Spray as soon as damage is noticed.
Leaf miners: Boxwood, Hawthorn, Oak diazinon, malathion, acephate Spray foliage thoroughly when miners first appear. Repeat treatment in 10 to 12 days. Use acephate only on oak. Leaf miners usually do not harm the tree.
Leaf miners: Birch, Holly dimethoate Repeat treatment in 3 weeks.
Mealybugs acephate, malathion, insecticidal soap Spray foliage thoroughly and with force. Repeat in 2 weeks.
Mimosa webworms (NHE- 109) acephate, malathion, Bacillus thuringiensis*** Spray foliage thoroughly when first nests appear dune, July). A repeat treatment or second -generation larval feeding may be needed August)
Oak kermes malathion Spray foliage thoroughly about July I to kill the crawlers.
Periodical cicadas (NHE- 113) carbaryl Spray all branches thoroughly when adults appear. Repeat in 7 to 10 days. Protect very young trees (less than 2 inch dia.) with screening around the top and trunk.
Sawflies carbaryl Spray as soon as worms or damage is evident. Handpicking is also effective.
Scales (NHE-100, 114, 146) diazinon, malathion, acephate Spray foliage thoroughly in early April for Fletcher and European elm scale in late May for pine needle and sweet gum scale; in early June for scurvy, oystershell, and euonymous scales; in early July for cottony maple, juniper, and dogwood scales; in mid-July for spruce bud scale; and again in August for oystershell scale.
Cottony maple (NHE-144), Putnam, San Jose, Tulip tree dormant oil diluted according to label Apply when plants are still dormant in late winter. Do not use on evergreens. For tulip tree scale, a malathion spray in late September or in early spring is also effective.
Sycamore lace bugs, Plant bugs acephate, carbaryl, malathion Spray when nymphs appear, usually in late May.
Thrips Same as for aphids Mainly on privet. Spray foliage thoroughly.
Yellow-necked caterpillars acephate, carbaryl, malathion, Bacillus thuringiensis Spray foliage when worms are small (July).
Zimmerman pine moths (NHE-83) chlorpyrifos, dimethoate Spray trunk and branches in mid-April for young larvae and/or mid-April for young larvae and/or mid- August for adults and young larvae.
*Use only one insecticide from those listed
** Treatment dates listed are for central Illinois. In southern Illinois, apply 2 weeks earlier; in northern Illinois, 2 weeks later.
***Trade names: DiPel, Thuricide, SOK-BT, and others.
Amount of Insecticide for Volume of Spraying for Tree and Shrub Insects
1 gal. 6 gal. 100 gal
acephate (Orthene) 15.6% E.C. 4 tsp. 1 cup 2 qt.
carbaryl (Sevin) 50% w.p.** 2 tbl. 3/4 cup 2 lb
chlorpyrifos (Dursban 2E) 2 tsp. 4 tbl. 1 qt.
diazinon 25% E.C.**** 2 tsp. 4 tbl. 1 qt.
dimethoate (Cygon 2E)*** 2 tsp. 4 tbl. 1 qt.
malathion 50-57% E.C.***** 2 tsp. 4 tbl. 1 qt.
E or E.C. = emulsion concentrate; W.P. = wettable powder.
*Do not use on flowering crab, sugar maple, redbud, American elm, Lombardy poplar, or cottonwood.
** Do not use on Boston ivy.
*** Do not use on chrysanthemums.
**** Do not use on ferns or hibiscus.
***** Do not use on canaert red cedar.
Lawn Insects
Insects Insecticide* Dosage per 1,000 sq. ft.** Suggestions
White grubs (NHE-104, 147) diazinon 25% E.C. 1 cup Apply as spray or granules to small area and then water thoroughly before treating another small area. Grub damage will usually occur in late August and in September.
Ants (NHE-I I I), Cicada killer and other soil-nesting wasps (NHE-79, 150) diazinon 25% E.C., diazinon 5% G, chlorpyrifos 5 or 6%E.C. 3/4 cup., 2 lbs., 1 cup Apply as spray or granules and water in thoroughly. For individual nests pour lSc diazinon in nest and cover with soil.
Sod webworms (NHE-115) carbaryl 50% W.P., diazinon 25% E.C., diazinon 5% G., chlorpyrifos 5 or 6% E.C. 1/2 lb., 3/4 cup, 2 lb., 8 fl oz. (1 cup) As sprays, use at least 2.5 gal. of water per 1,000 sq. ft. Do not water for 72 hours after treatment. As granules, apply from fertilizer spreader. Web- worms usually damage lawns in late July and in August.
Millipedes and sowbugs (NHE-93) carbaryl 50% W.P., diazinon 25% E.C., chlorpyrifos 5 or 6% E.C. 1/2 lb., 3/4 cup, 1 cup Spray around home where millipedes or sowbugs are crawling. If numerous, treat entire lawn.
Armyworms, Cutworms carbaryl 50% W.P., chlorpyrifos 5 or 6% E.C. 2 oz., 1 cup Apply as sprays or granules. Use 5 to 10 gal. of water per 1,000 sq. it.
Chinch bugs chlorpyrifos 5 or 6% E.C., diazinon 25% E.C., diazinon 5% G. 1 cup, 3/4 cup, 2 lbs. Spray infested areas where chinch bugs are present.
Aphids (NHE-148) acephate 15.6% E.C. 4 1/2 fl.oz. Spray grass thoroughly.
Slugs (NHE-84) Mesurol 2% bait Apply where slugs are numerous. Scatter in grass. For use only in flower gardens and shrubbery beds.
Bluegrass billbugs chlorpyrifos 5 or 6% E.C. 1 to 2 cups Apply as a spray in spring to lawn damaged in previous year. Drench at high rate in July if damage is observed.
E.C. = emulsion concentrate; W.P. = wettable powder; G. = granules.
*Use only one insecticide from those listed
** To determine lawn size in square feet, multiply length times width of lawn and subtract non-lawn areas including house, driveway, garden, etc..Do not allow people pr pets on the lawn until the spray has dried.

Common Household and Garden Pests
Pest Description Habitat, Host Damage, Symptoms
Ant Readily recognized by small necks and waists, Troublesome species range in size from 1/8 to 1/2 inch long. Nests in the soil, various soil environments are conducive to ants. In turf, mounds around nest can frequently smother grass. Ants may also prevent good stands by destroying newly-planted seed Some species attack flowers and shrubs A few, including fire and harvested ants, bite people.
Aphid, plant louse, greenbug Soft-bodies, round or pear-shaped, var. ious colors including yellow, light-green, powder blue and brown, seldom more than 1/8 inch long, some look woody or powdery due to a waxy excretion. Most plants are subject to infestation by aphids of one or more species. Sucking of plant juices causes curled or distorted leaves: stunted, possibly dying plants A colorless sweet secretion called honeydew may attract ants and provides a growth medium for black, 500tv mold.
Armyworm The larvae of moths, they are 1-1/2 inches long, light tan to dark green or black with white stripes along each side and down the back. Adults (moths} are brownish gray and have a wingspan of 1-1/2 inches. General feeders, they attack all common turfgrasses, many vegetables, and flowers of many ornamental Bare, circular areas in lawns may indicate the presence of armyworms. They feed on the blades of grass, making the turf look ragged and bare.
Bermudagrass mite Tiny, eight-legged, and cigar-shaped, they are white although not visible without magnification. Primarily Bermudagrass in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California. Mites suck sap from the grass blades, causing wilting and stunting. Grass be- comes bushy or tufted and has a yellow or brown appearance.
Billbug (grubs, also called lawn weevil, snout beetle) Adults vary in color from light olive yellow to reddish brown to black and are from 1/4 to 1/2 inch long with long snouts The larvae or grubs are white, short, legless, chunky and curved, with a distinctive hard yellow-brown head. Corn, turf and other grasses. When larvae hatch, they feed inside the stem. Outgrowing that they move to the soil and attack roots and crowns of plants often leaving a sawdust-like grass on the soil surface. Adults feed on stems and foliage leaving a series of transverse holes in leaves, and a ripped or shredded stem.
Brown dog tick The adult male is flat, 1/8 inch long and uniformly red-brown. The female, before feeding, resembles the male. As she becomes engorged with blood, the female may grow to 1/2 inch long, 1/4 inch wide and 1/8 inch thick. When engorged, body may become blue-grey. Dogs are almost the exclusive host but other mammals, including man, are occasionally attacked Frequently invading buildings, brown dog ticks become a nuisance pest. In the south they are also Common in lawns and recreation areas. Attaching to skin, mainly on dogs, they may cause irritation and inflammation.
Chigger, jigger, red bug Oval, bright yellow-range; size of a pin- head or smaller. Most numerous east of the Rocky Mountains, chiggers invade lawns. Case red blotching of skin usually takes the summer Microscopic larvae attack man. Poisonous bite irritates and causes scattered red blotching of skin usually takes place under tight areas of clothing. Intense itching may continue for a week or more.
Chinch bug, hairy chinch bug, southern lawn chinch bug Full-grown nymphs and adults are red-black; adults have white wings folded over the back and are 1/6 inch long Nymphs are smaller and bright red bluegrass lawns. Infesting lawns from spring until frost, chinch bugs prefer sunny areas; thrive during hot dry weather, and damage St Augustine, bentgrass and bluegrass lawns. Bleached, yellow areas of grass which rapidly turn brown are often caused by chinch bugs which suck the juices from plants. The bugs, though tiny, can be found in thatch or at the bases of infested grass.
Clover mite Only 1/30 inch long {smaller than a pinhead) the adult clover mite is dark red and has eight legs, the frontal pair long and extending forward from the body. Although they feed on covers and grasses, these mites lay eggs and return to molt in trees or cracks and crevices of building walls. Heavy infestations appear in heavily fertilized lawns and may appear homes during the spring Sucking of plant juices brings a bleached or silvered book to blades of grass.
Cricket Most species have dark, rounded, grasshopper-like bodies and prominent antennae Size ranges from 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches long Females have a prominent swordlike ovipositor Mole crickets are light brown with lighter underbody sometimes tinged with green They have short stout forelegs, shovel shaped feet and large, beady eyes. By day they hide under boards, low- lying foliage or trash: coming out at night to feed. They have a varied diet including flowers and tender growth of many garden plants Mole crickets live in turf. Presence of crickets in the garden, under leaves of cabbage, cucumbers, and other crops indicates potential for damage. Presence of adult or immature mole cricket in grass is a sign they might damage turf Mole crickets burrow in the ground, feeding on grass roots, uprooting seedlings and causing soil to dry out quickly.
Cutworm Soft bodied, dull gray green, brown or black caterpillars. some species are spotted, others striped. Size varies from 1-1/4 to 2 inches long They curl up tightly when disturbed Adults are gray-brown moths readily attracted to lights at night. All turfgrasses, dichondra, several flower varieties and most vegetables, especially early-season pepper, tomato, peas, beans and Cole crops, are subject to attack. Most species hide in the soil or under trash during the day and come out at night. Some feed on leaves, buds or fruit while others feed on underground portions of plants: plant cut off at or below soil surface is sure sign.
Digger wasp Several wasps are ascribed to this group including thread-waisted, cicada- killers, mud daubers and several mining species. The wasps dig nests or burrows in the ground and mound the soil at the en trance to the nests. Digging in lawns may damage turf. Wasps’ presence may be a nuisance as they may sting people if disturbed.
Earwig Beetle-like insects red-brown, 3/4 inch long, easy to identify by their prominent pair of forceps at the rear of the body. Found occasionally in lawns, they breed in piles of lawn clippings or other trash and feed on many types of vegetation. They hide during the day and forage at night. Contrary to superstition, they do not attack the ears of man. They do attack and destroy flowers and garden vegetables. Some types create a nuisance by invading the home.
Flea Narrow-bodied, 1/16 inch long, dark brown, and spiny with well-developed jumping legs. Adults feed on the blood of man, cats, dogs and many other animals. Immature stages develop off the host in organic matter. Bites aren’t usually felt immediately, but become increasingly irritating for several days to a week.
Leafhopper Adults are green, yellow or brown: rarely more than 1/4 inch long; wedge-shaped. Immature forms resemble adults and are easily spotted by their sideways movement. All turf grasses, dichondra, and fruit, nut and ornamental trees as well as most garden vegetables are attacked by various leafhoppers. Due to leafhoppers feeding on underside, leaves curl or roll downward, crinkle and turn yellow or red-brown. Some plants may become dwarfed, even die. These insects also might transmit several important plant diseases.
Millipede Sometimes called thousand- legged worms they’re brown, strong smelling elongated, have several uniform body segments with two Pairs of legs on each segment. Found mostly under rocks, boards, compost or other sheltered areas, they feed on roots, tubers, bulbs, fleshy stems and seeds. In Florida the tropical millipede is considered a lawn pest. Damaged plants, near heavily infested areas may indicate nuisance levels have been reached.
Sod webworm (lawn moth), lawn worm, webworm, grub Light brown or grayish-white with brown specks and a dark brown head, 1/2 to 1 inch long, covered with fine hairs, they are larvae of small white or gray lawn moths or millers that are often seen flying over the grass in the early evening. Most common lawn grasses. Small patches of dead grass clipped off at ground level, presence of adult moths, silken webs in grass leading to silk-lined holes into the ground.
Scale crawler The large group of insects called scale are minute and characterized by a waxy covering which they secrete after attach ing themselves to the bark of a tree, hence their name. Crawlers (young), only 1/8 inch in diameter, appear in May, move to new feeding sites, molt and lose their legs. The female insect is about 1/4 inch long although the covering may be much larger. All types of trees and ornamental plants are attacked by scales which weaken them by sucking plant juices from trunks, branches and leaves. Discolored (sometimes red) spots on leaves, stems, and fruit; encrusted stems, spotty infestations on leaves.
Sowbug, pillbug Light gray to slate – colored, 1/2 inch long, sowbugs have segmented bodies with seven pairs of legs. Not insects, they are crustacea along with shrimp, crabs and lobsters. When disturbed some species roll up and resemble pills Usually found on damp ground under rocks, boards, leaf piles, or in damp basements, they feed on organic matter in the soil and sometimes attack roots and tender parts of flowers and vegetables. Effects are similar to grub damage although infestations seldom are severe enough to cause significant damage.
Springtail (collembolar) Several species of various colors are found in the U.S.; 1/25 to 1/16 inch long; they jump like fleas by means of a tail like appendage. Damp places in gardens and seedbeds. Round holes chewed in stems and leaves of young seedlings.
Spider mite, red spider Tiny (barely visible to the naked eye); red to greenish red; eight legged appear as moving specks on leaf undersides. Fruit trees, beans, roses, spruces, berries, tomatoes, squash, cucumbers. Yellow specks and fine silken webs on leaves; plants and fruits stunted; foliage bronzed or rusty.
Thrip Slender; usually brown or yellow but also black; 1/25 to 1/8 inch long; leave brown specks wherever they feed. Variety of plants but most favored are asparagus, beans, onions, iris, gladioli, and roses. Leaves having stippled appearance similar to mite damage except for the characteristic specks left by thrips. Flower buds fail to open or are deformed, streaked, and discolored when they open.
Whitefly Young are pale green, rounded, flat and scale – like, lying motionless on leaf underside: adults are small wedge shaped white insects that fly when disturbed. Wide range including citrus, greenhouse plantings, vegetables, and ornamentals. Leaves become mottled or stippled and the plants may eventually turn yellow and die. Leaves can also become sticky with honeydew which provides a medium for black, sooty mold.
White grub of Japanese beetle, European chafer, and southern chafer Blunt, creamy-white; hard, yellow or brown head, slight covering of hair, three pair of legs; usually found in the soil curled into C shape. Female beetles lay eggs 2 to 6 inches deep in soil. Upon hatching, grubs feed on decaying vegetation but later on the roots of grasses and other plants. Irregular, dead patches in lawn; turf feels spongy and can be rolled up like a carpet because roots have been eaten. Moles, skunks, and birds feed on the grubs and tear up the turf getting them.

How to Use Chemicals Safely
1. Always read the label before using insecticides. Note ingredients, use directions, warnings and cautions each time before opening the container.
2. Keep all insecticides out of the reach of children and pets.
3. Always store insecticides in the original containers and keep them tightly closed.
4. Never smoke or eat while spraying or dusting.
5. When handling pesticides, wear a long-sleeved shirt and full-length pants. Some chemicals may require waterproof gloves and goggles. When spraying overhead, wear a wide-brimmed hat.
6. Avoid inhaling sprays or dusts.
7. Do not spill sprays or dusts on the skin or clothing. If they are spilled, remove contaminated clothing immediately and wash.
8. After spraying or dusting, wash hands and face and change into clean clothing. Wash clothing immediately.
9. Cover food and water containers when treating around livestock or pet areas. Do not contaminate fish ponds.
10. Use separate sprayers for applying herbicides to avoid accidental injury to susceptible plants.
11. Always dispose of empty containers so they pose no threat to humans, animals or wildlife.
12. If symptoms of illness occur during or shortly after spraying or dusting, contact a physician or go to the hospital. Take the label from the chemical with you.
5 Steps to Better Lawn Care
EARLY SPRING – repair winter damage. Treat with pre-emergence crabgrass killer, insecticides; fertilize and reseed if necessary.
LATE SPRING – kill broadleaf weeds; fertilize lawn and flowers.
EARLY SUMMER – water generously and often; fertilize and apply post-emergence herbicides and insecticides as needed.
LATE SUMMER – Watch for sod webworms and other insects. Fertilize and water heavily.
EARLY FALL – seed and fertilize, prepare for winter by mulching and pruning various shrubs and trees.
Specialty Products and Their Uses
Bone Meal-Excellent for use with flowering tubers and corms – such as tulips, iris, dahlias, crocus, peony narcissus, hyacinth, daffodil, etc. Use where organic nitrogen and phosphoric acid is needed for gradual feeding.
Nitrate of Soda-Has an alkalizing effect on the soil Provides quickly available nitrogen for dark green leaves. Promotes rapid growth.
Sulfate of Ammonia-High-ammoniacal nitrogen with an acidifying effect on the soil. Promotes sustained growth and dark green leaves through sustained release of nitrogen.
Sulfate of Potash-imparts increased vigor and disease resistance to plants. Helps encourage stronger stalks and stems, reducing lodging. Improves quality of fruits and helps in development of tubers.
Iron Sulfate -Helps overcome iron chlorosis and provides available iron as needed. Associated with chlorophyll production in plants.
Manganese Sulfate -Excellent for supplemental use for plants deficient in trace elements. Over-limited or alkaline solid are often deficient in this minor element.
Magnesium Sulfate -Provides the key element of the chlorophyll molecule. Promotes deeper, greener, healthier foliage. Helps regulate uptake of other plant foods and acts as a phosphorous carrier in the plant.
Soil Sulphur -Reduces Ph as it acidifies the soil. Helps plants retain dark green color and encourages more vigorous plant growth.
Facts You Should Know About Lawn Grasses
Kind Days to Germinate # Seeds/Pound Seeding Rate per 1000 Sq. Ft. Usual Life Blade Texture General Utility For Shade For Play Areas For Golf Fairway For Quick Cover For Slopes General Desirability
New Lawn Established Lawn
Part Kentucky Bluegrass 10-28 2,200,000 4 2 Permanent Fine Excellent Poor Good Excellent Good Good Fast Germination
Newport Kentucky Bluegrass 10-28 2,200,000 4 2 Permanent Fine Excellent Good Good Good Fair Good Shade Tolerant
Marion Kentucky Bluegrass 14-28 2,200,000 4 2 Permanent Fine Excellent Poor Good Excellent Poor Good Best for Sunny Lawns
Kentucky Bluegrass 14-28 2,200,000 4 2 Permanent Fine Excellent Poor Good Good Poor Good Best for Sunny Lawns
Creeping Red Fescue 10-21 550,000 6 3 Permanent Fine Good Good Excellent Excellent Fair Good Shade Tolerant
Tall Fescue 10-14 230,000 10 6 Permanent Coarse Poor Fair Excellent Fair Good Excellent Withstand Hard Use
Meadow Fescue 10-14 230,000 10 6 Permanent Coarse Poor Poor Excellent Poor Good Fair Poor
Red Top 9-14 4,990,000 3 2 3 Years Fine Fair Poor Good Good Excellent Good Fine Nurse Grass
Pos Trivialis 10-21 2,540,000 4 2 Permanent Fine Fair Excellent Fair Good Fair Fair Shade Tolerant
Bentgrass 7-14 5,500,000 2 1 Permanent Fine Fair Fair Fair Good Fair Good Good
Perennial Ryegrass 10-14 230,000 10 6 3 Years Coarse Poor Poor Good Fair Excellent Good Quick Cover
Annual Ryegrass 10-14 230,000 10 6 1 Year Coarse Poor Poor Good Fair Excellent Fair Quick Cover
White Clover 7-10 670,000 1 1 Permanent Fair Fair Good Poor Excellent Fair Good for those that like it

Check your state and local codes before starting any project. Follow all safety precautions. Information in this document has been furnished by the North American Retail Hardware Association (NRHA) and associated contributors. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and safety. Neither NRHA, any contributor nor the retailer can be held responsible for damages or injuries resulting from the use of the information in this document.